Ayumi of Itoman-shi

February 1, 2013

Native translation is this

English/kantaichubun/hantaichubun/한국어/español/Português    

  1. Development of gusuku and the rise and fall of Minamiyama
  2. Early modern five-holed short bamboo clarinet, village
  3. Reorganization of city limits
  4. The administrative change
  5. Development of gusset of Itoman
  6. Development of fishery of Itoman
  7. Within the gate and within the gate grave
  8. The Battle of Okinawa
  9. It is revival of native district from debris
  10. In the days of one town 3 village
  11. Merger, birth of new Itoman-cho
  12. The municipal organization enforcement, the mother country return
  13. The fourth inning and new development
  14. Survey the 21st century

Development of gusuku and the rise and fall of Minamiyama

Image: Step of Itoman-shi

 

In Itoman-shi, 38 gusuku is confirmed now. "ahakonno size" and influential people built gusuku in each place, and, according to "omorosaushi", they were doing conflict between regionally powerful lords "makahiowaruyononushi" "we wind up" "fukushiowaruyononushi" "yamakitarasusahe" "kumesuyononushi" and "ishiyarayononushi". Above all, "shimonoyononushi" seems to have been the most influential ruler.

The imperial descendant was in Minamiyamashiro in character Osato Sato Ufu, Ouso Ou, ta*mai including Osato feudal lord of old Okinawa and Minamiyama who followed, and, as for the rule, "doing gradually amounted to Tomigusuku, Kyan, Mabuni, Kochinda, Gushichan, Tamaki, Chinen, Sashiki, Shimazoe Osato from range of Kanegusuku, Osato, Makabe called island buttocks". And Sato Ufu presented Okinawa Island to China to the Miyama tripod right time to leave charges when three power called Nakayama, Minamiyama, Kitayama competed for ascendancy next to Nakayama in 1380 and developed Mitsugu Shin trade.

"Large satohasatokararu, kadeshikawamizukararu" and sung hand Shikawa (kadishiga) to praise quenched the fields under Minamiyamashiro with the rich quantity of water and did base of Minamiyama prosperity. However, ta*mai changes gold-leaf folding screen which this river and small feudal lord of old Okinawa (Hashi Sho) of Sashiki have and loses confidence of subject, and it is said that we were destroyed at last by Tomoe will.


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Early modern five-holed short bamboo clarinet, village

Image: Division figure of the times of old Ryukyu

Jurisdiction that constituted Itoman city limits was old, and "doing knew island", and "you came, and stopped" and was called "mafuni". It was out of, and "doing knows island" was divided during three of Kanegusuku, Shimajiri, Shimajiri Osato, shimashirishinkahi gradually, and Shimajiri Osato five-holed short bamboo clarinet renamed to high peak five-holed short bamboo clarinet in 1667, and Kanegusuku, Shimajiri five-holed short bamboo clarinet renamed shimashirishinkahikansetsu to Makabe five-holed short bamboo clarinet to Kanegusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet.

Throughout the early modern times, it is running out of five ken of Kanegusuku, high peak, Makabe, Kyan, Mabuni. Feudal lord of old Okinawa lord of a manor and both lords of a manor of lord of a manor and side lord of a manor who possessed village who possessed five-holed short bamboo clarinet were appointed each five-holed short bamboo clarinet. Lords of a manor lived in Shuri and Naha and ruled over five-holed short bamboo clarinet and village. Actually carrying the government of five-holed short bamboo clarinet and village lord of a manor charges in top husband lord of a manor raked (Shuri owner child, large rules, south wind rules, west rules), and, in village rules and others, divided duties by duties such as general affairs, the tax payment, the sugar business, agricultural administration, Tsutomu Hayashi, peace and order.


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Reorganization of city limits

Image: Figure of Satsuma feudal clan adjustment

Villages of city limits greatly changed by review of five-holed short bamboo clarinet border of the late 17th century. Kanegusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet admitted 3 of Taketomi, Namihira, Ahagon or village from Tomigusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet and it was 2 of Zhongcheng, Sakinaka-jo Castle or was 2 of Ishiki, Aragaki to high peak five-holed short bamboo clarinet in village or provided village to Makabe five-holed short bamboo clarinet, and it was 9 of number, seat wave, Shiohira, Kanegusuku, Teruya, Itoman that Taketomi, Namihira, Ahagon congratulated, or it was in village. High peak five-holed short bamboo clarinet gave 3 or village of Kohagura, fine castle, Itosu to Makabe five-holed short bamboo clarinet, and we admitted 2 or village of Zhongcheng, Sakinaka-jo Castle from Kanegusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet, and "geru" "strangled" Kamisato, and "watarikina" merged 5 or village of the middle with village nearby, and it was in 4 or village of Yoza, Yako (later Osato), Kuniyoshi, Maezato. It was 3 of Kohagura (later Kohagura), fine castle, Itosu from high peak five-holed short bamboo clarinet, or Makabe five-holed short bamboo clarinet admitted village from Kanegusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet each in 2 of Aragaki, Ishiki or village and it was 2 of ki*, the middle or integrated village with village nearby, and "we went up, Makabe was" (later Uegusuku), and it was 9 of in front of flat (later Maehira) Aragaki, Ishiki, fine castle, Kohagura, Asato, Itosu, or it was in village. "It bloomed", and Kyan five-holed short bamboo clarinet abolished village, and it was in 5 or village of Kyan, Fukuchi, Yamashiro, bunch side name, Uezato. Mabuni five-holed short bamboo clarinet is 5 or village of Mabuni, shoto, the United States next (later Komesu), Ishihara, Italy etiquette.


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The administrative change

Image: Turnout of gusset of Itoman

The Meiji government set up Ryukyu feudal clan as preceding paragraph of establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains on September 14 in 1872 (Meiji 5). And we proclaimed that, on 4th, we abolished Ryukyu feudal clan and further established Okinawa in April in 1879 (Meiji 12). However, it was said that desk work in each five-holed short bamboo clarinet remained old customs.

Conventional five-holed short bamboo clarinet guard station was renamed by five-holed short bamboo clarinet office by five-holed short bamboo clarinet island local public worker official regulations having been promulgated in 1897 (Meiji 30), and government official lord of a manor charges or less was abolished, and five-holed short bamboo clarinet length, treasurer, clerk and the head of a village were appointed newly.

By Okinawa enforced on April 1 in 1908 (Meiji 41) and island municipality organization, Itoman separated from one village of Kanegusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet, and we spread town organization, and the only "town" was born in Okinawa. Each five-holed short bamboo clarinet laid village system, and, as for Kanegusuku five-holed short bamboo clarinet, as for high peak five-holed short bamboo clarinet, as for Makabe five-holed short bamboo clarinet, Kyan five-holed short bamboo clarinet renamed Mabuni five-holed short bamboo clarinet in Mabuni-mura in Kyan-mura in Makabe village in high peak village in Kanegusuku-mura.


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Development of gusset of Itoman

Image: Kanegusuku-mura office

Character Itoman originated in relative group of 3 stomachs or 7 stomachs, and thing which moved appeared in early modern middle part to run fishery from farm village of neighborhood and increased in 13 stomachs before long, and it was 929 number of houses, a population of more than 5,300 at the beginning of Meiji and developed in big town next to Shuri, Naha.

Led by city, kanei such as Itoman police station, Itoman post office, Naha ward court Itoman branch office (registry office) was established there, and traffic such as Itoman Highway and carriage orbit, railroad Itoman line under prefectural management was maintained, too.


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Development of fishery of Itoman

Image: sabani which waits for sailing out fishing in joguwa

Traditional fishery of Itoman was coastal fishery called Ann Processed Aconite Root (drying net fisheries network) fishing to make leaf which developed in the West Coast of Itoman fishing ground, but developed to shark fishing and bird robber fishing, offshore fishing industry such as flying fish gill net. It developed to oikomimogyogyo named pantataka and agiya mainly composed of diving after mikagan (water glasses) was devised in 1884 (Meiji 17). We were improved, and sabani accelerated *fune from chestnut ship still more. Produced fish was carried to Naha that was consuming place and it was Cami Aki and was sold off by (in head business by transportation). From agiya which was organized fishery management, much ichimanamma (Itoman woman) and others were able to accumulate watakusa (materials). Many researchers were interested in Itoman and came to visit this by Hajime Kawakami of Marx economist having announced article as "individualistic family of Ryukyu Itoman".

Development of agiya caused the drying up of fishing ground of the sea near the shore and unfolded for fishing ground to from around Okinawa Island to Miyako, Yaeyama and the mainland. In addition, many people went to South Sea Islands, Philippines Singapore for working away from home after World War I.


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Within the gate and within the gate grave

Image: Good luck abdomen in its natural shape, the red ratio matter stomach both within the gate grave which was repaired in 1935

People constituting each character for a long time are called jinchu (person from ground). jinchu organizes agnate group who calls himself/herself stomach or family and joint use one grave.

In good luck abdomen in its natural shape, red ratio matter stomach both within the gate grave which much within the gate graves are in Itoman-shi, and is known as the Okinawa's greatest within the gate grave,; is representative. This grave is blood relative combination grave which only descendant of bridegroom of older brother and younger sister uses. Use of grave of descendant of eight brothers and Kaneshiro chikudonono three brothers of the Uehara rules pro-Imperial Court is written down in gravestone of 1684.

Toe sea graves (nowadays grave) from the foundation those days to 1868 (origin of Meiji) were one small carapace of a turtle grave, but when it becomes in modern times, and descendant spreads, and numbers of annual dead person increase, we are not in time for processing until reburial after washing of the bones in 1 grave, and by one builds more shiruhirashi graves to enshrine till body dies to 1911 (Meiji 44) each in (Meiji 2) in 1869 and 1901 (Meiji 34). We paid toe sea grave now in big grave which we looked at and, in 1935 (10, Showa), built more shiruhirashi graves of another one grave and repaired form of roof from carapace of a turtle format in house-shaped grave of bargeboard format.


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The Battle of Okinawa

Image: Around summit of a mountain hair which became debris

When the U.S. forces which performed blitzkrieg around Naha on October 10 in 1944 (19, Showa) entered for 45 years, we added intensity and started intense bombing in Okinawa Island on March 23. It struck Okinawa Island from the shore of Yomitan, Kadena on Kerama Islands, April 1 on the same month 26 and occupied the Okinawa prefecture in an instant.

The Japanese military is about 90,000 people for more than 10,000 people, and, as for the person killed in action in the Battle of Okinawa for more than 80 days, the U.S. forces are told by citizen of the prefecture with 10 tens of thousands of.

As for the war dead of Itoman citizen, there are 8,287 with the total of 1,169 people 625 people, Mabuni-mura 1,979 people, Kyan-mura 1,521 people, Makabe village 1,547 people, high peak village 1,446 people, Kanegusuku-mura Itoman-cho. About a little under 40% of people of population at the time lost holy life.


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It is revival of native district from debris

Image: Rescue of Ishiki roar sinus

Inhabitants rescued by reed mace (cave) or grave were allowed to return to each hometown after the camp era. Lose holy human life, and, in home town where much property became debris, grieve; revival of native district began soon. "Itoman district" (Itoman-shi) was set around Itoman-cho, and the truth Kazushi village was placed in the Komesu whole area to the U.S. forces camping trace of fine castle southern ward. 3 villages of Makabe, Kyan, Mabuni that lost particularly many inhabitants were merged on April 4, 1946 and formed Mitsuwa-mura.

School education reopened quickly after the war, too and was performed flourishingly to patronize confidence of the people that sports such as track and field or baseball went to ruin.


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In the days of one town 3 village

Image: Fishing port west inning made of dredging of port

In the 1950s, power was concentrated on revival of full-scale native district in one town 3 village of city limits. With revival of each character, ashes of much war dead were collected, and memorial was erected in sequence in each place.

The Ryukyu government founded in 1952, and base maintenance of living environment including politics, education, farm and marine industries business was pushed forward. Remote island route was established by maintenance of reclaiming work and port of Itoman frontage, and it was at one time in place where development of commerce and industry was outstanding most in the prefecture.

Thatched school building built soon after the war was paid in sequence by new school building of concrete, and parent and child radio was maintained by each character, and publicity work of municipalities and agricultural cooperative became active, too and was time of the world substitute of Okinawa in postwar period.


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Merger, birth of new Itoman-cho

Image: Expression to change signboard from Mitsuwa-mura government office to Itoman-cho government office Miwa branch

Itoman-cho, Kanegusuku-mura, high peak village and Mitsuwa-mura lacked in line finance power together, and it was not able to be said with appropriate scale for self-government administration even if it lighted up for area, population, industry, other circumstances. Therefore administrative administration was rational and efficient and planned reinforcement of financial power and aimed at construction of cultural industry city and abolished Itoman-cho, Kanegusuku-mura, high peak village and Mitsuwa-mura on October 1, 1961, and new Itoman-cho was born.

Kawashiri frontage reclaiming work and (the first inning) of the Itoman fishing port north side and firefighting west reclaiming work (the second inning) accompanied with dredging of Itoman fishing port were completed, and expansion of city limits was planned.

Town budget broke through the level of 1 million dollars in the merger fifth year, and town administration has begun to finally get on track. In addition, public hall of *beibunkakaikan and each character was built by high commissioner fund, and maintenance of social capital was pushed forward steadily.


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The municipal organization enforcement, the mother country return

Image: Itoman rotary before traffic method change

It enforced municipal organization on December 1 in 1971 (46, Showa) when we reached the merger tenth anniversary to plan industrial promotion and improvement of facilities, improvement of inhabitants life and did with start newly as Itoman-shi.

We accomplished the mainland return on May 15 in 1972 (47, Showa), and Okinawa that was under administrative authority of the U.S. forces after the war for 27 years became new life Okinawa. Currency was replaced from the dollar to Japanese yen, too, and citizen of the prefecture life greatly changed, too. International marine exposition was held in the national polity, summer of 1975 (50, Showa) after for 2 more years in young summer in (48, Showa) in 1973, and the whole citizen of the prefecture was heated.

On the other hand, civic life improved, too, and production will increased, too and industrial festivals spread and were enriched, and sugar millet price accomplishment farmer meeting was opened for the first time, too. In addition, new Itoman fishing port repairing construction and public area reclaiming work (the fourth inning) were pushed forward steadily, too.

33 annual memorial service memorial services of the war dead were held solemnly in 1977 (52, Showa), and one end was accomplished. Then traffic method was changed all at once, and prefectural bottom kept left from having been right-hand traffic until now on July 30 in 1978 (53, Showa), and state of town around the rotary greatly changed, too.


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The fourth inning and new development

Image: Nishizakicho that maintenance goes ahead through

License of Shiohira frontage public area reclaiming work (the fourth inning) was issued on May 22 in 1980 (55, Showa) to Itoman-shi land development public corporation. We spent time and total cost of construction 36 billion yen that had a long four years, and large-scale reclaimed land of total area 268 hectares was completed on June 19 in 1984 (59, Showa). We invited there fisheries food processing housing complex or medium and small-sized business housing complex, and house in a development project, public housing, educational facility, Sports Park was located, and cultural new town "Nishizakicho" was born.

In the Kaiho national polity of 1987 (62, Showa), it was opened rubber-ball baseball and badminton meet in Nishizaki Stadium and general gymnasium by the main venue.

From living that became rich, feeling to think about peace or health, environmental problem increased, and "we asked Hikari and green, and town planning that was new as town of paste" Itoman was developed.


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Survey the 21st century

Image: New government building completion forecast map (southern aspect)

Citizen's, the offing water nine brought the second consecutive year of runner up at the whole country high school baseball meeting big dream and hope in (3) in 1990 (2, Heisei) and 1991 while commercial activity and cultural activities greatly unfolded around "Nishizakicho" that was born by the fourth reclaiming work.

We restored green that disappeared by the Battle of Okinawa and "the 44th whole country tree-planting ceremony" to create environment filled with moisture whether it was rich given "green" greeted Emperor, empress Their Majesties and was held on April 25 in 1993 (5, Heisei), and ground "Itoman-shi" of the Battle of Okinawa end came to attract attention of the whole country. In addition, peaceful city declaration and wartime evacuation of schoolchildren were relationships on December 1, the same year, and sister city partner signing with Tsuno-cho, Miyazaki was carried out. Chopped "foundation of peace" is erected, and maintenance of base praying for peace around Mabuni in world permanency is pushed forward with full name of all people who, on 23rd, died by the Battle of Okinawa regardless of nationality, officer, non-officer in June in 1995 (7, Heisei).

And, commencing with the south beach public area reclaiming work, new town planning that surveyed the 21st century such as construction of new government building and civic center, state-run dam business under the ground begins to move.


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